The book was created on the basis of the special course of the author. The principles of "sociology of the depths" (G. Durand), based on the study of society in parallel on two "floors" - at the level of rational (the "collective consciousness" - Emile Durkheim), and at the level of the irrational (the "collective unconscious" - CG Jung). It describes the concept of "social logo" and "social mythos." The principles of "sociology depths" are applied to the study of regional studies and sociological problems of the Caucasus, as well as for the study of Russian identity and its historical transformation, depending on the type of transition from one society to another. All areas are equipped with control issues. The studies were conducted using the methodology of "sociology of the imagination", based on the superposed layers "of social logo" and "social myths" that allows in-depth analysis of the social processes and patterns of modern Russia. Author: Candidate of Philosophy, Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of Sociology Faculty, and. about. Head of the Department of Sociology of International Relations Faculty of Sociology of Moscow State University.